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The History of Paris Architecture, Urbanism, Society
Part 9: Paris of the Belle Epoque (1880-1900)


18    November  – Gallery – Impressionist Paris, the 1870’s and 1880’s.


25 November – Gallery – The “gay nineties”, Art Nouveau and Toulouse-Lautrec.


2 December – Visit – Petit and Grand Palais: The 1900 World’s Fair.

Meet 10:30 am in lobby of the Petit Palais, av.Winston Churchill 75008. Métro Champs-Elysées-Clemenceau (lines 1, 13).

9 December – Visit – Musée d’Orsay: Impressionist painting and Toulouse-Lautrec.

Meet by group entrance B. Métro Solférino (line 12) or RER Musée d’Orsay (RER C).

16 December – Walk – Passy: Guimard and Art Nouveau  architecture.

Meet in front of 14 rue Jean de la Fontaine 75016. Closest Métros: Ranelagh and Jasmin (line 9).


The Third Republic 1878-1889:


1877 - Third Impressionist exhibition, Mary Cassatt invited to participate by Degas. Death of Courbet.


1878 – First Paris World’s Fair under the Third Republic, building of Palais de Chaillot by Davioud.


1879 – Republican triumph in senatorial elections. Mac-Mahon resigns and is replaced by Jules Grévy. The Third Republic is now secure. Fourth Impressionist exhibition. Death of Camille Monet.


1880 – Amnesty of imprisoned Communards. 14th of July declared new national holiday and the Marseillaise becomes the official national anthem. The Jesuits and several other religious orders were dissolved, and their members were forbidden to teach in state schools. Jules Ferry becomes president of council of ministers (prime minister). Fifth Impressionist exhibition.


1881 - The Jules Ferry laws on free, mandatory and secular public education, voted in 1881 and 1882, were one of the first sign of this republican control of the Republic, as public education was not anymore in the exclusive control of the Catholic congregations. New law consecrating liberty of the press. Sixth Impressionist exhibition. Manet receives Légion d'Honneur.


1882 - Religious instruction was removed from all state schools. The measures were accompanied by the abolition of chaplains in the armed forces and the removal of nuns from hospitals. Fierce opposition to new measures by the Catholic church. Institution of municipal elections with universal suffrage for the election of municipal councils that choose town mayors. Seventh Impressionist exhibition.


1883 – French conquest of Indochina and Magadascar. Death of Manet.


1884 – Waldeck Rousseau laws allowing the creation of first labor unions. Divorce is legalized. Salon des Indépendants founded. Seurat, Gauguin and Signac show.


1886General Boulanger is imposed as minister of war by radical party encouraging vengeful tendencies against Germany in public opinion. Eighth and last Impressionist exhibition. Gauguin and Seurat invited to paricipate (exhibition of "A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of Grande Jatte"). Indignant Monet, Sisley and Renoir refuse to show. Van Gogh moves to Paris.


1887 – Boulanger is dismissed with support of right wing parties. Great popular demonstrations. President Jules Grévy resigns. Sadi Carnot succeds him as president of the Republic.


1888 – Boulanger forced to retire but triumphantly elected deputy of Paris. He nevertheless refuses to march against the Elysée palace and finally escapes arrest by fleeing to Brussels where he finally commits suicide.


1889 - Opening of Paris World’s fair marked by erection of the Eiffel Tower and celebrating centennial of French Revolution.  Opening of the Moulin-Rouge in Montmartre.

 
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