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Paris Art Studies – May- June 2011

The History of Paris with Chris BoïcosArchitecture, Urbanism, Society - Part 7:

The Age of Revolution II: Paris under the Bourbons, Louis-Philippe and Napoleon III, 1814-1860

Course Schedule: Fridays 10:30 am – 12:00 noon. Coffee and tea served at gallery sessions at 10 am.

6 May - Gallery – The Restoration of the Bourbons and the Revolution of 1830.

13 May - Visit   Paris in the Romantic period: The Nouvelle Athènes district.  

                           Meet in front of church of Notre Dame de Lorette 75009. Métro Notre-Dame de Lorette (Line 12).

20 May  - Gallery – Louis Philippe and the Revolution of 1848. Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte and the 2nd Republic.

27 May  - Visit   Musée du Louvre. Géricault, Delacroix, Ingres, Delaroche: Classical and Romantic painting.  

                        Meet with your ticket inside Pyramid by information desk at 10:15 am.

10 June - Gallery – The Beginning of the Second Empire: Napoleon III and Empress Eugénie, 1851-1860.

17 June - Visit   Haussmann’s Paris: Châtelet, Ile de la Cité and St Michel: the “Grands Travaux”.

                            Meet in front of fountain, place du Châtelet 75001. Métro Châtelet (lines 1, 4, 7, 11,14).

24 June – Visit  Musée d’Orsay. Ingres, Chassériau, Couture, Daumier, Courbet: Salon and Realist painters.

                       Meet in front of group entrance B. Métro Solférino (line 12) or RER C Musée d’Orsay.

                       Please bring 10 € for your ticket .

 

Bibliography: Mansel, Philip, Paris between Empires 1814-1852. 

Ridley Jasper , Napoleon III and Eugénie.  Jones Colin, Paris – Biography of a City.

 

Chronology:

1813 – Battles of Vittoria and Leipzig, France is defeated and loses Spain and Germany.

1814 – March, Allies invade France. 31 March they enter Paris. 6 April Napoleon surrenders, Louis XVIII is proclaimed King of the French. 11 April, treaty of Fontainebleau, Napoleon keeps his Imperial title and is made sovereign of the isle of Elba in Italy.

 

The Bourbon Restoration: Louis XVIII (1755-1824) Reign: 1814-1824

Louis XVIII, formerly the duc de Provence, was the younger brother of Louis XVI. He was the legitimate successor in the Bourbon line after the death of Louis XVI’s son in prison in 1795. In 1771 he married Louise de Savoie daughter of the King of Sardinia but had no children. From 1791 to 1814 he had lived in exile moving constantly across Europe to escape the invading French armies. His last place of exile was England.

 

1814 – 24 April, landing of Louis XVIII in Calais. 3 May, royal entry in Paris. 4 June, promulgation of a fairly liberal constitutional Charter.

1815 – “The Hundred Days”

1 March, Napoleon escapes Elba and lands in Provence. Grenoble and Lyon go over to the Emperor.

19 March, Napoleon reaches Fontainebleau. Louis XVIII flees Paris to Ghent. 20 March Napoleon reaches the Tuileries palace.  1 April failed rebellion against Napoleon of the Duchesse d’Angoulême (1778-1851, daughter of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette married to her cousin son of the future Charles X) in Bordeaux. 12 May, Europe declares war against Napoleon. 18 June, Napoleon is defeated by Wellington in Waterloo.  22 June Napoleon abdicates in favor of his son. He will be exiled to St Helena in the middle of the Atlantic where he dies of cancer in 1821.

1815 – 30 June Prussian and Russian troops enter Paris. 8 July return of Louis XVIII to Paris. August, election of an ultra-conservative chamber of deputies almost immediately dissolved by prime minister Rihelieu.

1817 – Louis XVIII favors a more liberal policy and reforms electoral procedures to favor the urban bourgeoisie.

1819 – New liberal prime minister Decazes.

1820 – The assassination of the King’s nephew the duc de Berry leads to the return of the “ultras”. Decazes resigns and is replaced by Richelieu. Censorship of the press is reinforced and liberals are repressed.

1821 – The reactionary Villèle replaces Richelieu as prime minister.

1823 – The French invade Spain to stop anti-royal revolution. French victory against rebels in Trocadéro near Cadix.

1824 – 16 September death of Louis XVIII.

 

Charles X (1757-1836) Reign: 1824-1830

Charles X, formerly the comte d’Artois, was the youngest brother of Louis XVI and Louis XVIII. In 1773 he married his sister in law Marie-Thèrese de Savoie daughter of the King of Sardinia. She gave birth to 2 sons, the duc d’Angoulême who married his cousin Marie Thèrese daughter of Louis XVI but remained childless, and the duc de Berry who was assassinated in 1820. From 1789 to 1814 he had lived in exile. On his return to France he was made by his brother Louis XVIII lieutenant general of the Kingdom and became the natural leader of the ultra party.

 

1824 – 27 September, an enthusiastic crowd greets the new King entering Paris riding his own horse!

1825 – 29 May, Sacre with great pomp of Charles X in Reims, in a traditional ceremony that had not been held since the Sacre of Louis XVI in 1775.

1827 –Under prime minister Villèle the chamber votes a series of conservative measures: a law against sacrilege, limitations of press freedom, dissolution of the French national guard.

1829 – Reactionary and incompetent government lead by Polignac.

1830 – French invasion of Algeria. March, Chamber defies the king, is dissolved but elections yield an even more liberal Chamber. 25 July, Charles X promulgates “Four decrees of St Cloud”, suspending liberty of the press, changing electoral law and dissolving the new chamber of deputies.  27, 28 and 29 July – “les trois glorieuses” – Paris rebels against royal authority. Charles X flees to Rambouillet. 2 August, Charles X abdicates and leaves for Scotland. He will die of cholera near Prague in 1836. On 9 August Louis Philippe duc d’Orléans head of the junior Bourbon branch is elected King of the French.

 
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